The Quaternary

The Quaternary is the last and shortest period of the Cenozoic, but it deserves special treatment, as the recent past is within this period and the top few tens of metres of the Earth's surface, i.e. the part of the earth in which engineering geologists, geomorphologists and civil engineers work, was predominantly shaped, certainly in detail, by the events of the Quaternary. These events were mainly climatically controlled and typified by glacial and interglacial periods.