Geological models and case histories

Basic volcanics - Although potentially a common model, no case history was found where it was thought this model would be the leading one providing the check list. However, several of the case histories also include this particular model as an associated model. These cases are identified in the following text.

Acid volcanic - Similar comments to those for the basic volcanic model apply also to this model.

Plutonic intrusions - This is an example of a model with geological processes that do not have an active expression on the ground surface, so that all the examples of such a model are ancient.
Case History 1: Grand Coulee Dam, USA

Continental, fluvial, colluvial and lacustrine - A good example of a model representing both modern and ancient situations, illustrated by Case Histories 2, 3 and 4. Case History 2 is one of the cases with which the authors have had direct experience. In their view the existence of initial models would have helped anticipate the problems that occurred.
Case History 2: Ok Ma tailings dam site, Papua New Guinea
Case History 3: Goldau rock slide, Switzerland
Case History 4: Avulsion of the Kosi River fan, India, and the Mississippi River and its delta, USA

Continental deltaic - Although this incorporates ancient coal measure systems, which commonly occur, we could not find a leading case history. However, this model is given elsewhere as an associated case history.

Shelf carbonates and evaporites - Again, this is a good model to illustrate local modern and ancient environments.
Case History 5: Col de Braus and Caranca tunnels, France

Deep marine deposits - Although offshore oil exploration is extending into deeper water, and we hoped would provide good examples of case history studies, we have found only Case Histories 6 and 7 to illustrate this site scale model.
Case History 6: Submarine slides on the Hawaiian Ridge
Case History 7: Cape Fear submarine slide

Normal faults - Although such features are relatively common and often encourage landslide occurence, only one suitable, but small case history was found.
Case History 8: Opening-out of the Cofton Tunnel, England

Strike-slip faults - Again, a relatively common model. The 1906 San Franciscan earthquake on the San Andreas Fault is used to illustrate this model.
Case History 9: San Andreas Fault, U.S.A.

Thrust systems - Again, a relatively common phenomenon in active plate tectonic areas but no leading case history was found.

Jointings in undeformed sediments ) - Again, we thought this would produce several case histories, but no leading case history was found.

Open folds and joints - This particular model produced many case histories from which we have selected three.
Case Histories 3 (again): Goldau rock slide, Switzerland
Case History 10: Mangla Dam, Pakistan
Case History 11: Barrage de Castillon, France

Plastic folded with cleavage - This model is again potentially fairly common in convergent boundary systems. However, we did not find any readily identifiable case histories and thought that this could be because the cleaved nature of the rocks involved was not brought out in the case histories we reviewed.

Multiple folded sheared - This model related to several of the case histories, though not always as the leading case. It is again a potentially very common model, especially for convergent boundaries, and we illustrate it with
Case History 12: Malpasset Dam,France

Tectonised mélanges - A potentially fairly common situation in convergent boundaries but also one for which we found no leading case history.

Schistose rocks - A potentially fairly common situation in convergent boundaries but also one for which we found no leading case history, but see Case Histories 14 and 30.

Gneiss and migmatite - A potentially fairly common situation in convergent boundaries but also one for which we found no leading case history, but also see Case History 30.